How to manage the problem of burning of tip of mango leaves?

Published on: 09-Nov-2023

Dr. SK Singh Professor (Plant Pathology) and Head of the Department, Post Graduate Department of Plant Pathology, Principal Investigator, All India Fruit Research Project, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Samastipur, Bihar. Send feedback to sksraupusa@gmail.com/sksingh@rpcau.ac.in.

Side effects of salt in mango, also known as "sap burn", occur when salt-based fertilizers or salts in the soil come in contact with the roots of the mango tree. Symptoms include leaf burning, browning of leaf edges, and overall discoloration of leaves. Affected leaves may exhibit necrosis, leading to reduced photosynthesis and stunted growth. The adverse effect of salt hinders water uptake and absorption of nutrients, which puts stress on the mango tree. Initially, affected leaves appear wilted or scorched, resembling symptoms of drought stress. The accumulation of salt in the soil interferes with the osmotic balance within plant cells, causing further damage. 

Tip burn of mango leaves is often due to one of the three conditions, however, it is not always the first reason that plants are not getting enough water second reason is salt accumulation in the soil third reason is magnesium deficiency can be another possible reason for this problem. All of this can happen at the same time. If you water your plant regularly, you will not see tip burn of mango leaves due to lack of moisture. Typically, sporadic irrigation or excessive fluctuations in soil moisture can be a major cause, resulting in tip burn. 


Also read: How to prevent mango flowers and fruits from falling in March, Treatment of diseases of mango tree.

 It is important to manage the adverse effects of salt in mango cultivation to ensure healthy and productive orchards. Salt impaction, often caused by excessive soil salinity or salt-laden irrigation water, has detrimental effects on mango trees, leading to reduced yields and poor fruit quality.


Damage of Salts in Mango


Salt damage occurs when the concentration of soluble salts, primarily sodium and chloride ions, in soil or irrigation water exceeds the tolerance limits of mango trees. High salt levels inhibit the absorption of water and essential nutrients, causing various physical and structural problems in trees.


How to manage the side effects of salt in mango?


To effectively manage the side effects of salt, it is necessary to diagnose it accurately. Symptoms of salt side effects in mango trees include leaf burn, leaf scorch, reduced growth, and poor fruit development. Soil and water testing helps determine the extent of salt accumulation in the garden.


Also read: If the web-making (leaf web) insects in the orchards of mango, guava, litchi, and other fruits are not managed in time, huge losses will be caused.


How to manage excessive salt content in soil management?


Regular and adequate leaching is a primary way to manage soil salinity. Leaching involves the use of excess water to flush out salts deposited below the root zone. This process is achieved by using low-salt irrigation water, applying greater amounts of water, or installing drainage systems.


Select salt-tolerant rootstocks.


It is essential to choose salt-tolerant rootstocks, as they can withstand high salt levels in the soil.


Improvement in soil structure.


Enhancing soil structure by adding organic matter increases its ability to hold and release nutrients, which can reduce the negative effects of salt damage.


Irrigation management.


Regularly test irrigation water quality to monitor salt levels. High-quality water sources with low salt content are preferable. Tipburn caused by moisture fluctuations can be reduced by regularizing irrigation. Set a watering schedule for your plant and irrigate it regularly.

Drip Irrigation: 


Drip irrigation minimizes direct contact between salt-rich water and tree roots, thereby reducing salt stress. It also promotes water use efficiency.


Alternative source of water.


Consider using alternative water sources with lower salt content, such as harvested rainwater or water treatment systems to remove excess salt.


Also read: Drip sprinkler system is available with 75 percent subsidy, farmers will have to do only this work.


Use of Fertilizers.


Using properly balanced fertilizers can reduce the adverse effects of salt. Nutrient deficiencies can increase salt stress, so maintaining optimal nutrient levels is essential.


Micronutrient management.


Monitor and manage micronutrients carefully, as salt damage can affect their absorption. Foliar application of micronutrients may be necessary. This type of symptom can also be due to magnesium deficiency. To overcome this deficiency, compost should be used according to the age of the tree.




Cultural (agricultural) methods.


If drainage around the plant is poor, salt can accumulate in the soil, causing mango leaves to burn. If salt has accumulated in the soil, try watering heavily to flush the salt out of the root zone. If the soil has drainage problems, create drainage channels. In the rainy season, grow any one of Sanai, Dhaicha, Moong, Cowpea, etc. as an intercrop as a green manure crop and plow back after 50% flowering. This practice should be done for at least 4 to 5 years. Applying organic mulch around the base of mango trees helps conserve soil moisture and reduces salt accumulation on the soil surface. To correct poor soil fertility, apply adequate organic manure along with humic acid, BCA, gypsum, and decomposed organic fertilizers. Gypsum helps in improving the structure of soil. Soil is a complex mixture of inorganic particles, organic particles, and pores, water, and soil microbes.


Also read: How to protect fruit trees from waterlogging?

Spore composition changes due to weather events such as rainfall, tillage, or the withdrawal of nutrients for plant growth. Farmers have to manage their soils well to maintain good crop yields year after year. Improving soil structure helps farmers with some common agricultural problems. Mixing gypsum in the soil increases the soil's ability to absorb water after rainfall. The use of gypsum also improves soil aeration and water infiltration through the soil profile. The use of gypsum improves the movement of water. Finely ground gypsum can be mixed in irrigation water and used. Gypsum can be applied to the soil before planting or during the growth stage of the tree.



Monitoring and maintenance. 

Regular Inspection: Assess the garden periodically for signs of salt damage. With early detection, timely corrective action can be taken.

Record Keeping: Maintain records of soil testing, irrigation schedules, and orchard management practices to track changes and improvements over time.  


Salt Resistant Mango Varieties.


The discovery of salt-resistant mango varieties could be a long-term solution to salt damage. Some new mango varieties have been bred to be more tolerant of salinity conditions, and integrating these into your garden can help reduce the risk of salt damage.


Integrated Pest and Disease Management.


Mango trees affected by salt are more susceptible to pests and diseases. Use integrated pest and disease management methods to maintain tree health and reduce additional stress.


Also read: Know what are the differences between pest control and pest management.



Conclusion.


Salt damage management in mango orchards is a multifaceted approach that includes soil and water management, careful selection of rootstocks and varieties, and cultural methods. By following these guidelines, mango growers can maintain healthy orchards, increase fruit quality and yield, and reduce the harmful effects of salt stress. Regular monitoring and adjustments in management practices are important for long-term success in managing salt damage in mango cultivation.