Detailed information related to cucumber cultivation

Published on: 21-Feb-2024

India is an agricultural country. Various types of crops are grown here. Today we will give you information about cucumber crops, so first of all let us tell you that cucumber belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family its botanical name is Cucumis melo and India is its place of origin. It is light green, whose peel is soft and the pulp is white. It is mainly consumed in the form of salad with salt and pepper. Its fruit has a cooling effect. Therefore it is mainly eaten in the summer season.

Soil and land for cucumber cultivation

Cucumbers can be grown easily in different types of soils ranging from sandy loam to heavy soils with good drainage. For its cultivation, the pH of the soil should be 5.8-7.5. Along with this, it is also very important to prepare the land. Well-prepared land plays a very important role in cucumber cultivation. To make the soil loose, it is very important to plow it 2-3 times with a harrow.

What is the time and method of sowing?

The months of February and March are considered most suitable for sowing seeds. The distance between seeds and pods should be 200-250 cm. And 60-90 cm between ridges. Keeping it will prove beneficial. Sow two seeds in one place for excellent growth of the crop. Talking about seed depth, sow the seeds at a depth of 2.5-4 cm. Method of sowing: Seeds are sown directly on beds or ridges. Talking about the quantity of seeds, you should use 1 kg of seeds per acre.

Seed treatment and fertilizer

To protect against soil-borne diseases, treat seeds with Banlet or Bavistin at 2.5 grams per kg. At the same time, if we talk about manure, it should be kept 15 cm from the nursery bed. Apply the full quantity of phosphorus and potash at a distance and 1/3rd part of nitrogen at the time of sowing. Apply the remaining nitrogen one month after sowing. 

Also read: Treat seeds at home, earn good profits with cheap technology

Weed control and irrigation

To control weeds, do a light weeding of the upper layer of the vines before they spread. Talking about irrigation, it is very important to irrigate immediately after sowing. In summer, 4-5 irrigations are required and in rainy season, irrigation is done as per requirement.

Harmful pests of cucumber plant and their prevention

Aphids and Thrips: These insects suck the sap from the leaves, causing the leaves to turn yellow and fall. Thrips cause the leaves to curl, causing the leaves to become cup-shaped and curl upward.

Treatment: If its attack is visible in the crop, spray the crop with Thiamethoxam 5 grams per 15 liters of water.

Ladybug: Flowers, leaves, and stems get destroyed due to ladybug insects. 

Treatment: If attacks are seen, give Malathion 2 ml. Or spray Carbaryl by mixing 4 grams per liter of water, it helps prevent ladybugs.

Fruit fly: It is a serious pest of cucumber crop. The male fly lays eggs under the outer layer of the fruit, after which these small insects make the pulp of the fruit their food, after which the fruit starts rotting and falls.

Treatment: Spray 3.0% foliar spray of Neem oil to protect the crop from fruit flies. 

Also read: Important information related to cucumber cultivation

Diseases causing white spots on leaves and their prevention

White mold: White spots appear on the upper surface of the leaves. These spots are also visible on the main stem of the affected plant. Its insects use the plant as their food. When attacked by them, leaves fall and fruits fall before ripening.

Treatment: If a white mold attack is seen in the field, add water-soluble sulfur 20 grams in 10 liters of water and spray it 2-3 times at an interval of 10 days.

 Anthracnose: It attacks the leaves, causing the leaves to appear scorched.

Lower leaf spots :

Spots on the lower side of leaves: This disease is caused by Pseudopernospora cubensis. Due to this, small and purple-colored spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves.

Treatment: If its effect is visible then use Dithane M-45 or Dithane Z-78 to avoid this disease.

Cucumber wiltiningIt affects the vascular tissues of the plant, causing the plant to wither immediately. 

Treatment: Spray Captan or Hexocap 0.2-0.3% to prevent Fusarium wilt. 

Cucurbit phyllody: Due to this disease, the pores become small and the growth of the plant stops, due to which the crop does not produce fruits.

Treatment: To prevent this disease, apply Furadan 5 kg per acre at the time of sowing. If the attack is seen then apply Dimecron 0.05% at an interval of 10 days. 

Also read: Method to check nutrient deficiency in crops

When to harvest cucumber crop

Cucumber fruits are ready for harvesting in 60-70 days. Harvesting is mainly done when the fruit is fully developed and soft. Harvesting is done mainly during the flowering season at an interval of 3-4 days.

How to produce cucumber seeds?

Keep cucumber at a distance of 1000 meters from other varieties like snap melon, wild melon, cantaloupe cucumber, etc. Remove affected plants from the field. When the fruits become ripe such that their color changes to light, then keep them in fresh water break them with hands, and separate the seeds from the pulp. The seeds which settle to the lower level are collected for seed purposes.