Important information for Mustard Farming during Rabi Season

By: MeriKheti
Published on: 14-Dec-2023

In the different rabi crops, mustard is a very important crop. In the different states of India like Utter Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana mustard farming is done extensively. But specially in the Alwar, Karoli, Kota, Jaipur, Dholpur, Bhratpur and Savai Madhopur districts mustard is sown. The percentage of oil in mustard seeds is around 30-48%.

Suitable environmental conditions for Mustard Farming.

Mustard production is done in the winter season because for good produce temperature of around 15-25°C is required. Even though it can be grown in a variety of the different soils but the sandy soil is considered more suitable for mustard farming. Mustard can survive in a little alkaline soil but it cannot grow in acidic medium or acidic soil.

Good quality Mustards are of the following types:

You don't really need to buy seeds every year because seeds are very expensive. For this reason if your harvest is is good or if your friends harvest was good then you can take seeds and do their cleaning and grading. After this you can make them disease free and segregate them according to the size of seeds we want to take the bigger seeds. And if you show the seats after doing Street treatment then miraculous results can be achieved. But those farmers who do not have access to such seeds from prior crops and harvests can buy the following seeds. 1. R.H. 30 : this particular variety can be grown with, gram and barley in both irrigated as well as non irrigated fields. 2. T 59 : It is grown in 15 to 18 hectares of non irrigated field. The oil percentage and this form of mustard is only 36%. 3. Pusa Bold : this variety is found suitable for showing seeds late from 25 October 250 November. 4. Aravli(RN 393) : This variety is moderately resistant to White Rot. 5. NRC HB 101 : This is an indigenous variety which has been developed in saver Bharatpur. The produce is fabulous. It is useful for growing in small patches of land. 6. NRC DR 2 : it's produce is better comparatively. It's produce has been recorded to 22 to 26 quintal. 7. R.H-749 : it's produce has been recorded from 24 to 26 quintal per hectare.

Preparing the land for growing Mustard.

Mustard requires sandy soil for growing suitably. For attaining this after the kharif harvest the deep ploughing should be done in the field. For conservation of moisture we should irritate the soil. If there is excessive infestation of termites, spotted beetles and other insects in the field then Qunalfoss powder 1.5% 25kg per hectare should be mixed. And for increase in production 2-3 kgs of Azobactor and 50 kg of P.A.B. cluture decomposed fertilizer should be mixed before last ploughing. Time period for sowing Mustard. The suitable temperature for mustard is 25-26°C. Seed droping should be done from 5th October to 25th October. Mustard should be sown in straight lines. Each line should be 45cm apart and each plant should be 20cm apart. Seed drill machine should be used for better results. Seeds sown 5cm deep after irrigation. 3-5 kg of seeds per hectare are enough. Seed Treatment 1. Rotting of roots can be prevented by adding any one of the fungicides, babstein, vitavax, thiram, provax. 3-5 grams per 1kg seed is enough. 2. To protect from insects treat with Imidaclorpid 70 WP at the rate of 10 ml per kg seed. 3. After using insecticides and pesticides phosphorus solution and bacterial fertilizer both are added 5 grams per 1 kg seed.

Better management of fertilizer for mustard crop.

For irrigated crop 7 to 12 ton of rotten dung, 175kg urea, 250 single super phosphate, 50kg murate of potash and 200kg gypsum should be mixed in the field thoroughly. Half of the total amount of urea should be added at the time of showing and the rest half should be added at the time of first irrigation of the field. In non irrigated areas 4 to 5 ton of rotten dung, 87 kg urea, 125 kg single superphosphate, 33 kg Murat of potash per hectare should be added before rainfall.

Weed control for better produce of mustard.

Different types of weed grow along with mustard crop. To control this weeding should be done in a timely manner from 2 to 3 times after 3 weeks of sowing. For chemical treatment use 3.3 l of pendimethalin 30 EC chemical at the rate of 800 to 1000 l per hectare should be used before germination. If the environment is suitable and the crop is free from any sort of disease insects or weeds and is grown according to various scientific norms then 25 to 30 quintal per hectare of produce can be expected.