Published on: 11-Dec-2023
After rice, wheat is one of the most important crops grown in India. Wheat is sown in the Rabi season. But for the production of wheat farmers have to go through a lot of difficulties. Mainly farmers have to face losses due to different plant diseases in the wheat crop. There are different types of diseases that wheat crop can catch but the disease that harms the most are rust related diseases. Rust diseases are of three types mainly brown rust, black rust and yellow rest.
Leaf rust/ Brown rust
Piccinia Recondita Triticeae is the fungus that causes brown rust and is found nationwide in India. This disease begins from the Himalayas and North India and from the Nilgiri Hills in South India and after staying a live in These areas at Travels via air and water to the Planes and infecting the wheat crop
in the plane areas.
Identification: This infection can be identified by the pattern of its growth in the start Orange coloured dots appear randomly on the leaves of plants and gradually these increase and cover the entire leaves, foliage and the stems of the plant. These leaves start to die and hinder the sunlight. This also results in decreased size and weight of the wheat grains. With increasing temperature the colour of these parts on the underside of the leaf turns black and after this point the disease does not expand further. This disease can cause a 30% reduction in the total produce.
Stripped rust/ Yellow rust
It is caused by a fungus called puccinia Striiformis. Symptoms of this infection are the appearance of yellow stripes on the leaf and with time these spread gradually to the entire leaf surface. Yellow powder is also found fallen on the ground in this situation the crop is said to have yellow rust disease. If the infection starts before the tillering stage the crop does not mature. This infection starts from the foothills of the Himalayas and spreads to the northern plains. It decreases with increasing temperature and the yellowness of the leaves goes black. In the central and South India due to high temperatures this disease is generally not found.
Stem rust/ Black rust
It is caused by a fungus called puccinia Graminis Triticeae. It starts in the Nilgiri and Palni Hills and is generally found in the south and Central India. This infection reaches North India at the time of ripening of the crop. This is why its effect is negligible in North India. This disease generally spreads above 20 degree celsius temperature. It's symptoms are the appearance of chocolate colour on the stem and the leaves on the plant. The different varieties of seeds sold in the central and southern part of India are generally resistant to black Rust. But varieties like Lok-1 are prone to infection by Black rest. In recent years new varieties of this fungus U.G.-99 has been found in some African countries.
Controlling the infection
To cure these three diseases farmers should adopt scientific methods to fight Rust. Spraying the following Chemicals as required can control wheat rust disease: Propiconazole(Tilt 25%EC) or tridimefan belitan 25%EC or spraying Techonazole (1ml in 1000L). Fungicides can be spread after 15 days as per the requirement.