Prevention of white braided insects is very important for good yield of groundnut.

Prevention of white braided insects is very important for good yield of groundnut.

Farmers expect a decent harvest from groundnut planting when they can eliminate white braid disease in groundnut crops. Whiteflies are omnivorous insects that live on the soil.These are also referred to as root braids. Let us inform you that white braided insects feed on organic substances found in soil and plant roots. Aside from groundnuts, white braided potatoes, walnuts, tobacco, and other oilseeds, pulses, and vegetable crops obtain their sustenance by attacking the roots of guava, sugarcane, coconut, and betel nuts. Whiteflies can cause a 20-80% loss in the groundnut crop.

When does the incidence of whiteflies peak?

Normally, white threads are visible all year. However, their activity becomes more obvious during the wet season. Adult males congregate in huge numbers for mating during the first monsoon rains in mid-May or June. Females found in and near the fields return to the earth in the early morning. Also, they begin to lay eggs. They then return to the soil to complete their life cycle. The earth remains inert at a depth of roughly one metre until the monsoon rains arrive.

Also  read: Prevent the pests and illnesses that most impact the groundnut crop in this manner.

Symptoms of white-braided infection in groundnut field

Because this insect lives underground, the damage it does is often overlooked. Infected plants seem yellow and wilted. In such a case, the plant ultimately dries out and may be readily removed from the ground. Plants perish with strong infestations. Also, dead plants appear in spots throughout the fields. Whiteflies also consume plant roots, destroying them. Braids cause a significant loss in groundnut productivity. Adult moths are the first to create holes in leaves at night. They then consume the whole leaf with the exception of the middle leaf's central vein.

White braided pest control in a groundnut crop.

Let us inform you that if a whitefly infestation occurs in any location, it cannot be managed by a single farmer. To do this, the farmer brothers as a society must take preventive actions. White hair management is only attainable through a community-based approach.

Also  read: Mungfali Ki Kheti: Detailed information on peanut/groundnut cultivation.

White Braided Adult Management

After the first rain, use one light trap per acre.

Cut down trees near fields in flood-prone locations. Also, trim and remove the shrubs around the field.

Spray pesticides such as Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 1.5 ml/lit or Monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1.6 ml/litre on trees and shrubs at sunset.

Gather fallen strands near the trees and dispose of them.

White Braided Pest Management

If water is available, sow early.

Farmer brothers should utilise better-decomposed organic manure.

Farmer brothers should undertake thorough ploughing in the summer to expose the pupae to direct sunlight.

Pay extra attention to preserving tiny birds, which feed on these whitetails.

Before planting, incorporate carbofuran 3 cg @ 33.0 kg/hectare or phorate 10 cg @ 25.0 kg/hectare into the soil.

Spraying pesticides such as Thiamethoxam 25 WS @ 1.9 litres/ha or Fipronil 5 FS @ 2.0 litres/ha along the sowing lines in whitefly-infested fields. Use.

Before planting, treat seeds with Chlorpyrifos 20 EC at 6.5-12.0 ml/kg or Imidacloprid 17.8 SL at 2.0 ml/kg.

When adult whiteflies are detected in the crops, spray Chlorpyrifos 20 EC @ 4.0 litres/hectare or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 3.2% litres/hectare in the roots of the crops.

These 5 improved varieties of wheat can give farmers a yield of up to 81 quintals.

These 5 improved varieties of wheat can give farmers a yield of up to 81 quintals.

The top five improved wheat varieties developed by Indian agricultural scientists are Shriram 303 wheat variety, GW 322 variety, Pusa Tejas 8759 variety, Shri Ram Super 111 wheat, and HI 8498 variety capable of giving production up to 81 quintals per hectare. Also, all these varieties become ripe in 100 to 120 days. To get more profit from wheat cultivation, farmers should choose improved varieties of wheat so that farmers can harvest maximum produce in less time and sell it in the market.

 Besides, agricultural scientists also prepare new varieties of crops as per time. In this series, today we have brought information about the top five improved varieties of wheat developed by Indian agricultural scientists for the farmers of the country, which ripens in 100 to 120 days. Also, these varieties give a yield of 81 quintals per hectare. They are the Shriram 303 wheat variety, GW 322 variety, Pusa Tejas 8759 variety, Shriram Super 111 wheat, and HI 8498 variety.

The top five improved varieties of wheat are as follows

HI 8498 Variety

HI 8498 variety of wheat has been developed by the scientists of Jabalpur Agricultural University. With this, farmers can achieve production up to 77 quintals per hectare. Also, this variety becomes fully ripened in 125-130 days.

Also read: Resistance varieties of wheat developed by agricultural scientists got an award.

Shriram 303 Variety of wheat

This variety of wheat gets ripe in the field in a time interval of 156 days. Its average yield is about 81.2 quintals per hectare to the farmers. This Shriram 303 wheat variety is a yellow, brown, and black rust-resistant variety.

GW 332 Variety

This variety of wheat ripens only under 3-4 irrigations. Indian farmers can get a yield of about 60-65 quintals from GW 322 varieties of wheat. The entire crop of this variety gets fully ripe in about 115-125 days.

Also readHeatwave will not be able to wreak havoc on crops, solution found through a new variety of wheat. 

Pusa Tejas 8759 Varitey

Pusa Tejas' variety of wheat ripens in a time interval of 110 to 115 days. Let us tell you that this variety of wheat has been developed at the Agricultural University of Jabalpur. With this, farmers can get a yield of about 70 quintals per hectare.

Shri Ram Super 111 Wheat

This improved variety of wheat is extremely beneficial for the farmers because this variety can be easily produced even on barren land. Farmers can get a yield of about 80 quintals per hectare from Shriram Super 111 wheat. Also, with this variety, farmers can get a yield of up to 30 quintals/hectare on barren land. This variety of wheat ripens within 105 days.

The most important nutrient for banana cultivation, symptoms of lack of potash and technique of managing it

The most important nutrient for banana cultivation, symptoms of lack of potash and technique of managing it

Potash, also known as potassium (K), is one of the necessary macronutrients required for healthy growth of all plants, including bananas. Potassium plays an important role in various physiological processes within plants, such as photosynthesis, enzyme activation, osmoregulation and nutrient. Lack of potash in banana plants has a harmful effect on their growth, fruit growth and overall productivity. Let's know about the major symptoms of lack of potash in banana plants and various strategies to manage it ....

Symptoms of lack of potash in banana plants

Potassium deficiency in banana plants is manifested through many types of symptoms that affect different parts of the plant. It is important to understand these symptoms for timely diagnosis and effective management. Some common symptoms of lack of potash in banana plants are as follows:

ALSO READ: How to manage the growing thrips in banana cultivation in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh due to monsoon active in September?

Symptoms of lack of potash on leaf

Brown of the edges of the leaf: The edges of the old leaves become brown and dry, this condition is called leaf scorching. 

Turning of leaves: The leaves turn up or downwards, which distorts their form. 

Yellowing among the veins: The yellow of leaf tissue between the veins, called interveinal chlorosis, is a common symptom.

 Leaf necrosis: In severe cases, necrotic (dead) spots may appear on the leaves, reducing photosynthetic activity.

Symptoms of lack of potash on fruit

Lowering fruit size: Lack of potash reduces the size of fruits, which affects the market price of bananas. 

Uneven ripening: Fruits do not cook evenly, making it challenging for business producers.

Symptoms of lack of potash on stem and bunch

Stagnant growth: The overall growth of banana plants may stop, resulting in reduced yield.

Small flakes: Fruits become small and thin due to lack of potash.

Also read: Banana's sigatoka leaf spot disease, causes, symptoms, effects and various measures to manage

Symptoms of lack of potash at the root

The roots are less empowered due to weak cell walls and become more sensitive to diseases.

Management of lack of potash in banana plants

Management of lack of potash in banana plants includes a combination of potassium on soil and leaves as well as other agricultural functions to improve the absorption and use of potassium. Some measures are being suggested here to effectively manage the lack of potash, such as:

Soil testing

Start by testing soil to assess potassium levels in the soil. This will provide correct guidance regarding determining the severity of deficiency and using proper potassium fertiliser.

Fertiliser application

Use potassium -containing fertilisers, such as potassium sulphate (K2SO4) or potassium chloride (KCL), based on soil testing recommendations. Include potassium fertilisers in the soil during planting or during the development of bananas. Monitor soil pH, as highly acidic or alkaline soil can reduce the amount of potassium. Adjust the pH level if necessary.

Also read: Panama Wilt Disease has affected the banana crop in these areas of India.

Spraying on the leaves

In cases of severe shortage, spraying potassium on the leaves is a quick remedy. To protect the leaves from burning, dissolve potassium nitrate or potassium sulphate in water and apply it in the morning or afternoon. Apply organic wet grass around banana plants to preserve soil moisture and maintain soil temperature continuously. This improves potassium absorption by roots.

Balanced nutrition

Ensure that other essential nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), are also present in sufficient amounts to prevent the imbalance of nutrients. Bananas require 150-200 grams of nitrogen (n), 40-60 grams phosphorus (P2O5) and 200-300 grams of potash per plant on the basis of soil and variety. The use of one-fourth nitrogen (N) and one-third potash (K2O) in the time of flowering (reproductive phase) has been found to be beneficial. At the time of flowering, the use of nitrogen delays the ageing of the leaves and improves the weight of bunches and using a third potash improves finger filling. Using the total quantity of nitrogen and potassium into farming from a banana plant prepared by tissue enhancement provides maximum benefit by using the total amount of nitrogen and potassium such as the first planting, 45 days after planting, the third-90 days later, the fourth, the fourth -135 days later; 5th-180 days later. The entire amount of phosphorus fertiliser should be put at the time of last ploughing or while filling the pit.

Water management

Proper irrigation to avoid water stress, as drought conditions can increase potassium deficiency.

Also read: Learn about the characteristics and benefits of red banana

Crop circle

Change the banana crop with other plants to reduce the risk of lack of nutrients in the soil.

Disease and pest control

Immediately solve any disease or insect infection, as they can put pressure on the plant and obstruct the nutrients.

Harvesting and removing dead leaves

To promote the development of a healthy, potassium-efficient decnus, regularly damaged or sort dead leaves.

Monitoring and adjustment

Constantly monitor the plant's response to potassium treatments and adjust fertiliser experiments accordingly. Finally, it can be said that lack of potassium in banana plants has a significant negative effect on growth, fruit quality and yield. To overcome this deficiency and ensure a healthy and productive banana crop, timely diagnosis and proper management are necessary, including soil testing, fertiliser experiment and agricultural functions. By applying these strategies, banana producers customise potassium nutrition and get better overall plant health and fruit production.

How to manage the problem of burning of tip of mango leaves?

How to manage the problem of burning of tip of mango leaves?

Dr. SK Singh Professor (Plant Pathology) and Head of the Department, Post Graduate Department of Plant Pathology, Principal Investigator, All India Fruit Research Project, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa-848 125, Samastipur, Bihar. Send feedback to

Side effects of salt in mango, also known as "sap burn", occur when salt-based fertilizers or salts in the soil come in contact with the roots of the mango tree. Symptoms include leaf burning, browning of leaf edges, and overall discoloration of leaves. Affected leaves may exhibit necrosis, leading to reduced photosynthesis and stunted growth. The adverse effect of salt hinders water uptake and absorption of nutrients, which puts stress on the mango tree. Initially, affected leaves appear wilted or scorched, resembling symptoms of drought stress. The accumulation of salt in the soil interferes with the osmotic balance within plant cells, causing further damage. 

Tip burn of mango leaves is often due to one of the three conditions, however, it is not always the first reason that plants are not getting enough water second reason is salt accumulation in the soil third reason is magnesium deficiency can be another possible reason for this problem. All of this can happen at the same time. If you water your plant regularly, you will not see tip burn of mango leaves due to lack of moisture. Typically, sporadic irrigation or excessive fluctuations in soil moisture can be a major cause, resulting in tip burn. 

Also read: How to prevent mango flowers and fruits from falling in March, Treatment of diseases of mango tree.

 It is important to manage the adverse effects of salt in mango cultivation to ensure healthy and productive orchards. Salt impaction, often caused by excessive soil salinity or salt-laden irrigation water, has detrimental effects on mango trees, leading to reduced yields and poor fruit quality.

Damage of Salts in Mango

Salt damage occurs when the concentration of soluble salts, primarily sodium and chloride ions, in soil or irrigation water exceeds the tolerance limits of mango trees. High salt levels inhibit the absorption of water and essential nutrients, causing various physical and structural problems in trees.

How to manage the side effects of salt in mango?

To effectively manage the side effects of salt, it is necessary to diagnose it accurately. Symptoms of salt side effects in mango trees include leaf burn, leaf scorch, reduced growth, and poor fruit development. Soil and water testing helps determine the extent of salt accumulation in the garden.

Also read: If the web-making (leaf web) insects in the orchards of mango, guava, litchi, and other fruits are not managed in time, huge losses will be caused.

How to manage excessive salt content in soil management?

Regular and adequate leaching is a primary way to manage soil salinity. Leaching involves the use of excess water to flush out salts deposited below the root zone. This process is achieved by using low-salt irrigation water, applying greater amounts of water, or installing drainage systems.

Select salt-tolerant rootstocks.

It is essential to choose salt-tolerant rootstocks, as they can withstand high salt levels in the soil.

Improvement in soil structure.

Enhancing soil structure by adding organic matter increases its ability to hold and release nutrients, which can reduce the negative effects of salt damage.

Irrigation management.

Regularly test irrigation water quality to monitor salt levels. High-quality water sources with low salt content are preferable. Tipburn caused by moisture fluctuations can be reduced by regularizing irrigation. Set a watering schedule for your plant and irrigate it regularly.

Drip Irrigation: 

Drip irrigation minimizes direct contact between salt-rich water and tree roots, thereby reducing salt stress. It also promotes water use efficiency.

Alternative source of water.

Consider using alternative water sources with lower salt content, such as harvested rainwater or water treatment systems to remove excess salt.

Also read: Drip sprinkler system is available with 75 percent subsidy, farmers will have to do only this work.

Use of Fertilizers.

Using properly balanced fertilizers can reduce the adverse effects of salt. Nutrient deficiencies can increase salt stress, so maintaining optimal nutrient levels is essential.

Micronutrient management.

Monitor and manage micronutrients carefully, as salt damage can affect their absorption. Foliar application of micronutrients may be necessary. This type of symptom can also be due to magnesium deficiency. To overcome this deficiency, compost should be used according to the age of the tree.

Cultural (agricultural) methods.

If drainage around the plant is poor, salt can accumulate in the soil, causing mango leaves to burn. If salt has accumulated in the soil, try watering heavily to flush the salt out of the root zone. If the soil has drainage problems, create drainage channels. In the rainy season, grow any one of Sanai, Dhaicha, Moong, Cowpea, etc. as an intercrop as a green manure crop and plow back after 50% flowering. This practice should be done for at least 4 to 5 years. Applying organic mulch around the base of mango trees helps conserve soil moisture and reduces salt accumulation on the soil surface. To correct poor soil fertility, apply adequate organic manure along with humic acid, BCA, gypsum, and decomposed organic fertilizers. Gypsum helps in improving the structure of soil. Soil is a complex mixture of inorganic particles, organic particles, and pores, water, and soil microbes.

Also read: How to protect fruit trees from waterlogging?

Spore composition changes due to weather events such as rainfall, tillage, or the withdrawal of nutrients for plant growth. Farmers have to manage their soils well to maintain good crop yields year after year. Improving soil structure helps farmers with some common agricultural problems. Mixing gypsum in the soil increases the soil's ability to absorb water after rainfall. The use of gypsum also improves soil aeration and water infiltration through the soil profile. The use of gypsum improves the movement of water. Finely ground gypsum can be mixed in irrigation water and used. Gypsum can be applied to the soil before planting or during the growth stage of the tree.

Monitoring and maintenance. 

Regular Inspection: Assess the garden periodically for signs of salt damage. With early detection, timely corrective action can be taken.

Record Keeping: Maintain records of soil testing, irrigation schedules, and orchard management practices to track changes and improvements over time.  

Salt Resistant Mango Varieties.

The discovery of salt-resistant mango varieties could be a long-term solution to salt damage. Some new mango varieties have been bred to be more tolerant of salinity conditions, and integrating these into your garden can help reduce the risk of salt damage.

Integrated Pest and Disease Management.

Mango trees affected by salt are more susceptible to pests and diseases. Use integrated pest and disease management methods to maintain tree health and reduce additional stress.

Also read: Know what are the differences between pest control and pest management.


Salt damage management in mango orchards is a multifaceted approach that includes soil and water management, careful selection of rootstocks and varieties, and cultural methods. By following these guidelines, mango growers can maintain healthy orchards, increase fruit quality and yield, and reduce the harmful effects of salt stress. Regular monitoring and adjustments in management practices are important for long-term success in managing salt damage in mango cultivation.