Cases of stubble burning in Punjab broke the last two years record

Cases of stubble burning in Punjab broke the last two years record

With the increase in the amount of stubble burning across Punjab, most of the villages of the state also have haze. This year the total number of incidents in Punjab has touched the figure of 1,027.

Paddy harvesting has started in all the states of India. Like every year, this year also incidents of burning straw are being seen in Punjab. However, there has been a significant increase in cases of stubble burning this year. As a result, there is a haze situation in most villages of the state. According to the report of Tribune India, the cases of field fires in this season are much higher than the last two years. This is raising questions on spending crores of rupees to ban the burning of crop residues by the government. It is to be known that 58 cases of stubble burning have been filed in Punjab on Monday. With this, the total number of incidents has reached the four digits of 1,027 this year.

Increase in cases of stubble burning

Significantly, till date, excessive incidents of field fires in Punjab were being recorded from the border areas. At present, farmers in Malwa region have started burning paddy straw. Its effect will also be seen on the air quality of Punjab and Delhi. According to data from the Punjab Remote Sensing Center (PRSC), 58 stubble burning incidents in the state were captured by a satellite on 9 October. At the same time, in 2021, 114 stubble burning incidents were recorded on the same day. Also, three such cases were reported in 2022.

Also read: Central government takes necessary steps for stubble management, 600 crores given to three states

Incidents of stubble burning broke the record of the last two years

The matter of concern is that the total number of this year 1027 is much higher than the related data for the last two years. During 2022 and 2021, Punjab had 714 and 614 incidents respectively till 9 October. Indeed, the cases till date are 43.8% higher than the previous year and 67% more than 2021 figures (till 9 October). Overall, in 2022, 49,900 fields were reported to be fired. 71,304 in 2021; 76,590 in 2020; And 52,991 incidents were reported in 2019.

Possibility of increase in cases of stubble burning - Agriculture Department

An official of the Agriculture Department says that "farmers in Sangrur, Patiala and Ludhiana have started harvesting crops and in these three districts, the field fire will increase considerably by next week." Experts say that "nothing special can be done, as the farmers are adamant on compensation of Rs 2,500 per acre. However, the government has not agreed at all. ” Also, the Amritsar administration has imposed a fine of Rs 6.97 lakh on 279 people for burning stubble.

A farmer earned lakhs by properly managing paddy straw instead of burning it.

A farmer earned lakhs by properly managing paddy straw instead of burning it.

Law graduate Harinderjit Singh Gill, resident of Noorpur in Ludhiana district of Punjab state, has earned more than Rs 31 lakh from the management of paddy straw in the district. At the same time, he has set an example for the farmers around him. As soon as paddy harvesting begins, the problem of stubble becomes a big challenge for both the farmers and the government. Every day farmers burn stubble in the fields. Also, a case is filed against them. Not only this, they also have to pay compensation to the farmers for this. But, amidst all this, law graduate Harinderjit Singh Gill, resident of Noorpur in Ludhiana district of Punjab, earned more than Rs 31 lakh from the management of paddy straw in the district.

 This has set an example for the farmers around him and has also shown them the path to income. The farmers who are still  burning stubble. According to media reports, while speaking, the progressive farmer said that he had purchased a second-hand square baler worth Rs 5 lakh and 5 bales to bale approximately 17,000 quintals of paddy straw left in his fields after harvesting the paddy this season.

Earned Rs 31.45 lakh from paddy straw.

The farmer says, “I earned Rs 31.45 lakh from paddy straw by selling it to paper mills at Rs 185 per quintal. Encouraged by his successful stubble management, the 45-year-old farmer has now drawn up plans to further expand his stubble management business. The cost of one baler and two trolleys was Rs 11 lakh. After covering all the expenses he has earned a net profit of Rs 20.45 lakh.

Also read: Due to increased stubble burning, air in many cities has became polluted

Gill bought another round baler with two rakes worth Rs 40 lakh and a square baler with rake worth Rs 17 lakh to further expand his stubble management business, saying, “Apart from this, I have, the baler and two trolleys.” He said, “Now, we are planning to make 500 tonnes of round bales and 400 tonnes of square bales with the help of two square balers.”

How many acres of land does successful farmer Harinder Gill own? 

At present Gill cultivates 52 acres of land, out of which he cultivated paddy in 30 acres. At the same time, guava and pear orchards were established in 10 acres. Apart from this, poplar saplings were established in the remaining 12 acres. 

Happy seeder is used for growing wheat 

He said, “I have not burnt paddy or wheat stubble for the last seven years and am using Happy Seeder for sowing wheat. The farmer further said “Crop production has increased since they stopped burning stubble in the fields. This year he has achieved a yield of 900 quintals of paddy from his 30 acres of land. Seeing me doing this for the last two years, most of the farmers in my village and surrounding areas have also started adopting the same practice.

Why should we not burn stubble? How would you know whether your soil is alive or dead?

Why should we not burn stubble? How would you know whether your soil is alive or dead?

The microorganisms found in the upper surface of your soil determine whether your soil is alive or non-living. Dead soil is called barren land. Burning of paddy straw kills the microorganisms found in the soil due to excessive heat, due to which the soil becomes infertile. There is a need to publicize this fact to reduce the problem of stubble burning. No smart and conscious farmer will make his soil barren. For immediate gain and lack of information, he is shooting himself in the foot. Determining whether soil is living or nonliving involves assessing its biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. 

Soil is a complex ecosystem made up of a diverse community of organisms ranging from microorganisms to larger organisms such as earthworms. This dynamic environment plays an important role in supporting plant life and maintaining ecological balance. We will explore various indicators and factors that help us understand the living nature of soil such as.

       1. Biological Indicators

Soil is teeming with life, and a key indicator of its liveliness is the presence of microorganisms. Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and nematodes are essential components of soil health. These organisms contribute to nutrient cycling, organic matter decomposition, and disease suppression. Soil tests, such as microbial biomass and activity assays, provide insight into the abundance and diversity of these microorganisms.


          Also read: Importance of natural farming and its benefits.     

Earthworms are another important biological indicator. Observation of the presence and diversity of earthworms indicates a healthy and biologically active soil.

         2. Chemical Indicators

          The chemical composition of soil also reveals its vitality. Living soil is characterized by a balanced nutrient content that supports plant growth. Testing soil for pH, nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, etc.), and organic matter content helps assess soil fertility and its ability to sustain plant life. Organic matter, derived from decomposed plant and animal material, is a major component of living soil. It provides nutrients, improves water retention, and supports microbial activity. High organic matter content is indicative of vibrant and biologically active soil.


            3. Physical Indicators

           The physical structure of soil affects its vitality. A healthy soil structure allows proper drainage, root penetration, and air circulation. Soil aggregates, formed by the binding of particles, contribute to a well-structured soil.

Also read: In the diverse country of India different types of soil are found, let us know which of these soils is most fertile.

Observing the texture of soil (sand, silt, clay) can provide information about its physical properties. Living soils often have diverse textures, promoting a balanced mix of drainage and water retention. Compacted or poorly structured soil indicates a lack of biological activity. 


            4. Health of Plants.

                 The health and vitality of plants growing in soil are a direct indicator of soil vitality. Lush and vigorous plant growth indicates nutrient-rich and biologically active soil. Conversely, stunted growth, yellowing of leaves, or increased susceptibility to diseases indicate soil problems. Mycorrhizae play an important role in nutrient uptake by forming a symbiotic relationship with plant roots. The presence of mycorrhizae is indicative of a living soil ecosystem that supports plant-microbe interactions. 

Also read: Our soil is moving from low fertility to better productive soil.


        5. Respiration in soil.

           Measuring soil respiration rates provides a direct assessment of microbial activity. Microorganisms consume organic matter in the soil, releasing carbon dioxide through respiration. High soil respiration rates indicate an active microbial community and contribute to nutrient cycling.      

        6. Conclusion

           In conclusion, determining whether soil is alive or not involves a comprehensive analysis of its biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Biological indicators such as microorganisms and earthworms, chemical indicators such as nutrient levels and organic matter content, and physical indicators such as soil structure collectively contribute to the assessment. Additionally, observing plant health and conducting soil respiration tests provides valuable information about the dynamic and living nature of the soil. Overall, a holistic approach that considers multiple indicators is necessary for a thorough understanding of soil livelihoods.        

Direction guidelines from Pusa scientists for Rabi season crops like wheat and mustard

Direction guidelines from Pusa scientists for Rabi season crops like wheat and mustard

Pusa agricultural scientists have put an advisory for the farming of wheat in rabi season. In which they pointed out that those farmers with 21-25 days wheat crops should go with first irrigation within the upcoming 5 days.  After 3-4 days of irrigation, second fertilisers should be put in. According to agricultural scientists, considering the temperature, farmers are advised to sow the late wheat crops as soon as possible. Sowing rates to be kept 125 kilograms of seeds per hectare. It's advanced species are HD 3059, HD 3237, HD 3271, HD 3369, HD 3117, WR 544 and PBW 373.

Must do seed treatment 

Before sowing seeds should be treated with bavistin @1.0 gram or thiram @2.0 gram per hectare. For your knowledge, in farms infected with termites, chlorpyrifos (20 ec) @5.0 litres per hectare should be spread with paleva or in dry farms. The amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilisers to be kept is 80, 40 and 40 kilograms per hectare. 

Rarefaction of mustard crops must be done on priority.

Weed control and rarefaction should be done in lately sown mustard crops. Considering fall in average temperature, mustard crops should specially be taken care of for white rust disease. Rotten/fermented dung and potash fertilisers must be used before sowing onion crops in prepared farms in this season. Potatoes and tomatoes are more prone to blight disease because of heavy moisture in the air. That's why, look carefully for crops. In case of symptoms, spray 2gram dithane-M-45 in per litre of Water. 

Farmers should check regularly for leaf feeding insects 

For your interest, farmers who have prepared a nursery of tomato, cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli. They can show their plants considering the weather. Cauliflower and cabbage family plants should specially be taken care of leaf feeding insects. If they are in large numbers, then spray BT @1 gram per litre of water or sponosade medicine @1.0 ml per 3 litres of water. In this weather, farmers must get rid of weeds with the help of weeding-hoeing practice. Vegetable crops should be irrigated and then fertilisers should be put in.

How farmers should manage stubble remains 

Farmers are advised not to burn the remains (stubble) of kharif crops(paddy). This results in polluting the environment too much. The smog produced by this does not allow complete sunlight to reach crops and farms. It affects the photosynthesis and evaporation in plants which leads to low food production in plants. It also affects the amount of produce and quality of produce. Farmers are advised to mix or dig the remaining paddy stubble in soil, it increases the fertility of soil.